Volume 8, Issue 1, February Issue - 2020, Pages:71-75
|Authors: B. M. Sanjay, Suresh N. Nair, Sanis Juliet, M. Megha, M. S. Shijin, S.V. Suraj, C. Ravisankar, A.R.Nisha, K.G. Ajithkumar|
|Abstract: Motility of small intestine which determines the efficacy of digestion and assimilation of nutrients and thus the rate of growth in the animals and birds is modulated mainly by muscarinic cholinergic receptor system. The efficacy of agonists and antagonists in modulating the gastrointestinal motility is governed by subtypes of muscarinic receptors present in the organs. So far, there are no reports of muscarinic receptors of quail intestine. Hence the current study was conducted for identifying the muscarinic receptor subtypes for better pharmacological management of dysfunctions of the small intestine of Japanese quail. Eight healthy quails of either sex were raised under uniform management conditions. Birds were euthanized and two to three centimetres length ileum was separated from a region five centimetres away from the ileo-caecal junction and transferred to Tyrode solution at 37.2 °C. The ileum tissue was mounted under 1 g tension in an organ bath chamber with constant aeration. The contractile responses to the agonist alone, agonist in presence of antagonists and relaxant effect of muscarinic receptor antagonists with submaximal contraction of ACh were recorded with isometric transducer connected to a recorder. The median effective concentration 50 (EC50) and pD2 values were determined. From the results it is evident that muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are present in the ileum of Japanese quail which, as per our knowledge is the first report of this receptor in Japanese quail intestine. The EC50 values of acetylcholine alone in ileum of Japanese quail varied from 1.235 X 10-7 M to 2.344 X 10-7 M with mean value of 1.701 X 10-7 M and pD2 value of 6.769.It was also confirmed that Tyrode solution is better suited for assessment of intestinal motility of quail. This model can be useful as a cheap and effective replacement for rat intestinal experiments.|
Alexander SP, Christopoulos A, Davenport AP, Kelly E, Marrion NV, Peters JA, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C (2017) The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2017/18: G protein?coupled receptors. British Journal of Pharmacoogy 174: S17-S129.
Apu AS, Mondal A, Kitazawa T, Takemi S, Sakai T, Sakata I (2016) Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail. General and Comparative Endocrinology 233: 53-62.
Bonner TI, Buckley NJ, Young AC, Brann MR (1987) Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes. Science 237: 527-532.
Dale HH (1914) The action of certain esters and ethers of choline, and their relation to muscarine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 6: 147-190.
Darroch S, Irving HR, Mitchelson FJ (2000) Characterisation of muscarinic receptor subtypes in avian smooth muscle. European Journal of Pharmacology 402: 161-169.
Delvalle NM, Fried DE, Rivera-Lopez G, Gaudette L, Gulbransen BD (2018) Cholinergic activation of enteric glia is a physiological mechanism that contributes to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. American Journal of Physiology- Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 315: G473-G483.
Eglen RM, Whiting RL (1988) Comparison of the muscarinic receptors of the guinea-pig oesophageal muscularis mucosae and trachea in vitro. Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology 8:181-189.
Gholamnezhad Z, Ghorani V, Saadat S, Shakeri F, Boskabady MH (2018) The effects of medicinal plants on muscarinic receptors in various types of smooth muscle. Phytotherapy Research 32: 2340-2363.
Ghosh MN (2014) Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology 6th Ed, Hilton and Co, P 142-143.
Kamikawa Y, Uchida K, Shimo Y(1985) Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptors in the guinea pig esophageal muscularis mucosae and ileal longitudinal muscle. Gastroenterology 88: 706-716.
Kitazawa T, Kondo N, Taneike T (2016) Pharmacological Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in carbachol-induced contraction of the chicken proventriculus. Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2: 1003-1.
Loewi O (1921) Überhumoraleübertragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung. PflügersArchiv European Journal of Physiology 189: 239-242.
Paradelis AG (1981) Aminoglycoside antibiotics and inhibition of the pendular movements of the intestine. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 7: 109-110.
VanPatten S, Al-Abed Y (2017) The challenges of modulating the ‘rest and digest’ system: acetylcholine receptors as drug targets. Drug Discovery Today 22: 97–104.