Volume 7, Issue 6, December Issue - 2019, Pages:513-520
|Authors: M. Saminathan, K.P. Singh, R. Rajasekar, Yash Pal Singh Malik, Kuldeep Dhama|
|Abstract: Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype member of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. The innate immune responses are the first line of defence against viral infections. Innate immune responses are critical for development of effective adaptive immune responses. The innate immune molecules are type I IFNs (IFN-α/β), other pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which control the viral infection. BTV is a potent type I interferon inducer in wild type mice from different tissues, cell types and host species. BTV replicates substantial fraction in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), but only pDCs produces a significant amount of type I IFNs. A temporal relationship between viremia and IFN-α/β activity has been observed during BTV infection and IFN peak concentrations caused decreased BTV titres. Wild type adult mice with intact IFN system were neither susceptible to BTV infection nor viremia/clinical signs/lesions were observed after either intravenous or subcutaneous inoculation. Blocking of IFN-α/β activity in mice resulted in the disruption of IFN-α/β-induced signaling leads to dramatically increased sensitivity to BTV, which allows the virus to replicate more efficiently.|
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