Volume 7, Issue 2, April Issue - 2019, Pages:148-155
|Authors: Ms. Atifa Rasool, Khalid Mushtaq Bhat, Haseeb Ur Rehman, Mohd Amin Mir, Asif Shikari, Ashiq Hussain Pandit|
|Abstract: Present study has been carried out to access the genetic variability and heritability between various cultivars of Kashmir valley of India. In present study, 40 apple cultivars were selected and various characters like fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, fruit firmness, leaf blade length and width, petiole length, pedicel length, TSS and acidity were measured using standard procedures. The results of study revealed a huge genetic variation among the various studied characters. Highest heritability estimate (99.5%) was found for fruit weight followed by fruit length (98.5%). Similarly expected genetic advance was highest for fruit weight (55.84%) followed by acidity (42.69%) and least for TSS (13.13%). It was found that correlation between fruit length and fruit weight was reported maximum, this was followed by fruit diameter, these treatments were found statistically significant (p<0.05). While performing cluster analysis, it was found that 36 cultivars lie within cluster-I, 3 in Cluster-II and cluster-III was monogenic containing only one cultivar i.e. Scarlet Siberian. Average intra and inter cluster distance (D2) value revealed that the cluster I had the highest intra cluster distance (119.95) followed by cluster II (83.89). Inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster I and Cluster III (1521.46) followed by cluster I and cluster II 9745.61).Cluster I had maximum mean values for fruit length (67.48 mm), fruit diameter (72.47 mm), fruit weight (156.10 g) and petiole length (28.83 mm). While the cluster II is characterized by highest leaf length (88.11 mm), leaf width (55.00 mm), acidity (0.26%) and lowest fruit firmness (5.86 kg/cm2), pedicel length (19.78 mm) and TSS (10.97 ºBrix). Cluster III had maximum mean values for fruit firmness (9.43 kg/cm2), pedicel length (31.00 mm), TSS (14.23 ºBrix). Fruit weight was main factor contributing towards divergence (54.10%) followed by acidity (12.30%) and least contributing factor was TSS (0.26%).|
|Full Text: 1 Introduction Apple is the most ubiquitous fruit in temperate regions and it has been cultivated throughout Europe and Asia since antiquity (Janick et al., 1996)). Apple was introduced into India by the British in the Kullu Valley of Himachal Pradesh as far back as 1865, while the coloured delicious cultivars of apple were introduced to Shimla hills in 1917. Jammu and Kashmir contributes 75% of countries apple production (NHB, 2017). It accounts for 43.30 per cent of total area under fruits and 80.18 per cent of total fruit production in Jammu and Kashmir. It is major cash crop and is the backbone of economy in the state. It is grown in almost all the districts of Kashmir valley, in an area of 1.63 Lakh hectares with annual production of 18.6 Lakh MT with a productivity of 11.4 T/Ha (Anonymous, 2018). Although farmers grow only few varieties like Delicious strains, Maharaji, American Apirouge, Chemura, Ambrietc, but there exists tremendous diversity in apple germplasm in the departmental and university orchards that remains to be exploited. Maintenance of genetic diversity are important for future breeding because genetic diversity gives the ability to adapt the changing environments and provide the raw material to breed new cultivars via hybridization (Doebley et al., 2006) or selection (Dzhangaliev, 2003). Estimating genetic diversity and determining the relationships among various germplasm collections enhances efficiency of its management and genetic improvement (Geleta et al., 2005). Heritability estimate provides information regarding the amount of transmissible genetic variation to total variation and determines genetic improvement and response to selection. It also suggests the relative role of genetic factors in expression of phenotypes and acts as an index of transmissibility of particular trait into its off springs however; knowledge of heritability alone does not help in formulating concrete breeding programme. Multivariate statistical techniques, which simultaneously analyze multiple measurements on each individual under investigation, are widely used in analysis of genetic diversity irrespective of whether it is morphological, biochemical, or molecular marker-based (Bhandari et al., 2017). Among the multivariate techniques, cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are most commonly employed (Mohammadi & Prasanna, 2003). Multivariate analysis has been frequently used for genetic diversity analysis in many fruit crops such as peach (Nikolic et al., 2010), cherry (Bhat et al., 2017), plum (Bhat et al., 2018a), Strawberry (Mishra et al., 2015), Almond (Sharma et al., 2012), Walnut (Dogra et al., 2018) and Apple (Bhat et al., 2018b). Considering the importance of apple in Kashmir, study of genetic diversity and information on relationships among native old varieties and new types would be desirable in order to allow for better management and preservation of genetic resources and their utilization within plant breeding programs. Therefore, present study has been carried out to explore the genetic variability and heritability between various cultivars of Kashmir valley of India. 2 Material and Methods Forty apple cultivars were selected for the present study (Table 1). The study sample consists of mixture of varieties comprising of old cultivars (15), SKUAST-K released cultivars (7), newly introduced cultivars (12) and scab resistant selections (6). The characters like fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, fruit firmness, leaf blade length and width, petiole length, pedicel length, TSS and acidity were measured using standard procedures. 2.1 Estimation of Genetic parameter estimates 2.1.1 Genotypic variance Genotypic variance was calculated using the method suggested by Johnson et al. (1955). Where as |
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