Volume 6, Issue 1, February Issue - 2018, Pages:204-210
|Authors: M. Latha Mala Priyadharshini, K. Manimaran*, K.Karthik, R. Mahaprabhu, Parimal Roy|
|Abstract: An unknown disease outbreak was reported in Solankurinchi village of Madurai district in Tamil Nadu, among Tellichery and Kanni breeds of goats wherein an investigation was undertaken. Out of the total 520 animals 80% were Tellichery goats and 20 % was native Kanni goats. About 20% of both the breeds were young ones. The clinical signs observed among the affected animals were high fever, anorexia, reduced feed intake, emaciation, profuse diarrhoea, dehydration, bilateral muco-purulent nasal discharge, sudden death, in-coordination and convulsions in kids of about 6-8 months, abortion and still birth among pregnant goats. Mortality occurred to the extent of 12.5% to 22.5% between the age groups of 4-7 months in Tellichery goats, while only 1% of the Kanni goat kids exhibited clinical signs. Among Tellichery adults mortality was 0.6% whereas no adult Kanni goats died. Stillbirths accounted for 1.6% and abortion was upto 1% in Tellichery does. Upon necropsy, congested, oedematous pleural surface with rib marking on lung was observed in the thoracic cavity. The abdomen was distended with curdled milk and abomasal mucosa contained diffuse pinpoint black pigmentation scattered all over its surface. In the brain haemorrhage and few petechae were noticed. Samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis and investigation was done to rule out Enterotoxaemia by the Biological assay and a RT-PCR for confirmation of PPRV infection as the primary cause of this disease outbreak. Vaccination is commonly followed worldwide to prevent both the disease but still occurs in unvaccinated flocks and following vaccine failure.|
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India is an agrarian nation with a considerable population having agriculture as their occupation, where livestock plays an important role. But for marginal or landless labourers and pastoral farmers sheep and goats play a pivotal role for their socio-economic upliftment. The total Goat Population in the country is 135.17 million numbers in 2012. The sheep and goat population in Tamil Nadu is 172.66 lakhs (All India Report, 2012). The greatest concern to sheep and goat industry is the prevalence of deadly infections, their prevention and management strategies practiced. Worldwide important infectious diseases of sheep and goats are Blue tongue, Pox, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), Lenti virus and enterotoxaemia. PPR is a devastating infectious disease caused by the PPR virus, a member of the morbillivirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. PPR (peste des petits ruminants) is a most important viral disease of goat capable of heavy mortality and commonly called as goat plague. The PPRV genome consists of a single stranded negative sense RNA of approximately 16 kilobases containing six genes, encoding 6 structural and 2 non structural proteins. The virus exists as a single serotype. In India the disease was first reported in Arasur village in Villapuram district, Tamil Nadu (Shaila et al., 1996). The economic losses due to PPR in goats and sheep is Rs 8895.12 crores, of which Rs. 5477.48 crores loss due to PPR in in goats while Rs. 3417.64 crores loss due to PPR in sheep (Singh et al., 2014).
Clostridium perfringens is a ubiquitous entero-pathogen (Ferrarezi et al., 2008) commonly seen in well fed animals (Jemal et al., 2016). The morbidity rate does not exceed 10% of the herd strength, but its lethality usually kills 100% of the affected animals. C. perfringens is prevalent throughout the world and possess different toxins in the arsenal to cause disease in different species of animals. Clostridium spp. are gram positive, non-motile, rod shaped, anaerobic bacteria distributed in the soil and digestive tract of animals (Sawires & Songer, 2006; Uzal et al., 2014). The C. perfringens is a heterogenous group of organism with respect to their metabolic by- products, toxins and pathogenic potential and is divided into five types from A to E based on lethal toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and iota) (Smedley & McClane, 2004). Types B, C and D are commonly associated with disease in domestic animals and are one of the most important causes of sudden death in goats of different ages. However, no single strain produces this entire toxin panoply.
C. perfringes type C and D are normal commensals of the gut micro-flora of healthy sheep and goats and thus poses the risk of infected animals entering the food chain (Wojdat et al., 2006) and producing histo-toxic and enteric diseases in both humans and other animals. A primary PPR viral infection causes remarkable immune-suppression that leads to secondary infections with high morbidity and mortality. The study was undertaken to know about the clinico-pathological findings in goats during a natural outbreak of concurrent viral and bacterial infection and detection of the viral genome in tissues by PCR and the bacterial toxin by biological assay.
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS:
2.1 Flock Investigation
The flock had at the time of first death, a total of 520 goats (80% Tellichery & 20% Kanni breed). There was no proper vaccination history for the animals. The flock was managed in semi intensive system and animals were housed in sheds having slatted flooring and fed with concentrates and roughages. Table 1 shows the animal population in the affected farm
2.2 History and clinical signs
In a herd of 520 heads, kids between the age group of 3-6 months suddenly started to die and within a short span of one month 40 kids had died in January- February of 2015. Females were affected more than the males. Some animals showed diarrhoea, muco-purulent bilateral nasal discharge, recumbency, opisthotonous, convulsion and internal vocalizing. Pregnant animals aged between 1 to 2.5 years were reported to have still
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