Volume 6, Issue 2, April Issue - 2018, Pages:296-306
Authors: Hafiz M. N. Iqbal,Kuldeep Dhama
Abstract: Emerging pathogens are a major threat to the biological safety of the world in the 21st century. Owing to many reasons, the emergence and re-emergence of deadly pathogens have increased and posed a considerable challenge to human and animal health, alike. Various factors including ecological changes along with other specific risk factors related to the type and classification of the pathogen, route of transmission and host range are among the most commonly associated criterion for emerging and re-emerging pathogenic environments. Owing to the lack of essential in-depth knowledge, challenges remain in this domain to tackle and combat emerging pathogens. Significant research efforts, exploitations of natural resources with potent bioactivities, and development of scientific innovations along with new degrees of integration are required to tackle this challenging threat. Aiming to resolve these issues, various methodological approaches including in-vitro, in-vivo, ex-vivo, etc. have been exploited, in the past several years. Research is underway around the globe to develop or engineer bioactive materials. Among them, biomaterials-based therapeutic constructs are of supreme interests in the current biomedical sector. The following measures, i.e. (i) principle sources of emerging pathogens, (ii) linking pathogen surveillance of wild and domestic animals, (iii) public health surveillance at the national and international level, and (iv) importantly the coverage of these surveillance issues, etc. should be taken with utmost care. This will ultimately make a significant and essential contribution to the detection and control of emerging and re-emerging pathogens.