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Volume 6, Issue 2, April Issue - 2018, Pages:264-281

Authors: Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo, Oveas Rafiq Parray, Masood Salim Mir, Sabiya Qureshi, Zahid Amin Kashoo, Mir Nadeem, Mujeeb Ur Rehman Fazili, Noor Alam Tufani, Maheshwar Singh Kanwar, Sandip Chakraborty, Kuldeep Dhama, Rajneesh Rana
Abstract: Mycoplasmosis, the diseases caused by mycoplasma, are one of the challenging and continuous threats to small ruminant farming. They cause heavy morbidity (upto 100%), mortality (10-100%) and huge economic loss. Common diseases caused by mycoplasma organisms are contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (mostly in goats), contagious agalactia (both sheep and goats), atypical pneumonia (usually sheep), besides arthritis, mastitis, seminal vesiculitis, ampullitis, epididymitis, orchitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis and meningitis either alone or as classical syndromes. The common mycoplasma includes Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, M. mycoides subsp. capri, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. agalactiae, M. bovis and M. conjunctivae etc. Most of the mycoplasmas produce a conglomerate of clinical signs hampering diagnosis. The other main challenge posed by mycoplasma is the difficulty in isolation due to lack of facilities and expertise, expensive involvements as well as fastidiousness of the pathogen. Hence prophylactic measures could be a better option for prevention and control however vaccines are lacking in most of the countries. Therapeutics is currently being used to cure the disease and prevent losses, both in terms of mortality and reduced production. In future main thrust should be on the development of sensitive and specific diagnostic facilities for early and rapid diagnosis of mycoplasmosis, locally feasible and strain specific vaccines for prevention and control and highly effective therapeutic protocols with cheap, readily available, and efficacious drugs for the treatment of mycoplasmosis. The main aim of this review is to highlight the common mycoplasmal diseases in small ruminants in India with emphasis on diagnosis, therapeutics and prophylaxis.
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