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Volume 6, Issue 1, February Issue - 2018, Pages:188-203

Authors: Manju Singh#, Shoor Vir Singh*, Saurabh Gupta#, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Jagdip Singh Sohal, Kuldeep Dhama
Abstract: In this study, 133 milk samples (100 commercial liquid milk, 19 flavored milk and 14 milk powder) made from pasteurized milk by 10 leading commercial brands were purchased from the markets in Mathura and Agra districts of South Uttar Pradesh in North India. These milk samples were screened to estimate ‘bio-incidence’ of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) using multiple tests; 3 antibody {Indigenous ELISA (i_ELISA), dot ELISA (d_ELISA) and Latex agglutination test (LAT)} and 3 antigen {(microscopy, Indirect fluorescent antibody test (i_FAT) and IS900 PCR}. Of 133 samples screened, 42.8, 58.6, 9.0, 27.0, 49.6 and 42.8% were positive for MAP in microscopy, i_FAT, IS900 PCR, i_ELISA, d_ELISA, and LAT, respectively. i_FAT was most sensitive followed by d_ELISA, LAT, microscopy, i_ELISA and IS900 PCR. In general, i_FAT, d_ELISA, LAT and microscopy were significantly superior to i_ELISA and IS900 PCR for estimating bio-incidence of MAP in milk samples. High bio-incidence of MAP in food items of mass consumption (liquid milk, flavoured milk and milk powder) made from pasteurized milk and freely sold in local markets by leading commercial brands emphasized the need for the immediate implementation of programs for the control of MAP in domestic livestock. MAP, the cause of incurable Johne's disease is endemic in the domestic livestock population of the country. In order to prevent the human infection through consumption of commercially marketed milk and milk products (flavoured milk and milk powder), it is essential to control bio-load of MAP in the domestic livestock population at the National level.
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