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Agersø Y, Wulff G, Vaclavik E, Halling-Sørensen B, Jensen LB (2006) Effect of tetracycline residues in pig manure slurry on tetracycline-resistant bacteria and resistance gene tet (M) in soil microcosms. Environment International 32: 876-882.

Ait-Mouheb N, Bahri A, Thayer BB, Benyahia B, Bourrié G, Cherki B, Kitir N (2018) The reuse of reclaimed water for irrigation around the Mediterranean Rim: a step towards a more virtuous cycle. Regional Environmental Change 18: 693-705.

Akinola MO, Lekonpane M, Dada EO (2017) Air quality management in Botswana. Clean Air Journal 27: 43-47.

Akinyemi FO (2017) Climate change and variability in semiarid palapye, eastern Botswana: an assessment from smallholder farmers’ perspective. Weather, Climate, and Society 9: 349-365.

Aminov RI, Mackie RI (2007) Evolution and ecology of antibiotic resistance genes. FEMS Microbiology Letters 271: 147-161.

Arntzen J (2006) Water accounting in Botswana: progress and challenges in the economics of Water Management in Southern Africa: An Environmental Accounting Approach: Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK.

Arntzen JW, Setlhogile T (2007) Mainstreaming wastewater through water accounting: the example of Botswana. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 32: 1221-1230.

Binh CTT, Heuer H, Gomes NCM, Kotzerke A, Fulle M, Wilke BM, Smalla K (2007) Short-term effects of amoxicillin on bacterial communities in manured soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 62: 290-302.

Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol M-P, Shenai S, Krapp F, Rustomjee R (2010) Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. New England Journal of Medicine 363: 1005-1015.

Cattoir V, Poirel L, Nordmann P (2008) Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance pump QepA2 in an Escherichia coli isolate from France. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 52: 3801-3804.

Chee-Sanford JC, Aminov RI, Krapac I, Garrigues-Jeanjean N, Mackie RI (2001) Occurrence and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater underlying two swine production facilities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 1494-1502.

Chen I, Dubnau D (2004) DNA uptake during bacterial transformation. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2: 241.

European Commission (2017) A European one health action plan against antimicrobial resistance (AMR) available on, accessed on 06 April 2019.

Corno G, Yang Y, Eckert E-M, Fontaneto D, Fiorentino A, Galafassi S, Di-Cesare A (2019) Effluents of wastewater treatment plants promote the rapid stabilization of the antibiotic resistome in receiving freshwater bodies. Water Research 158: 72-81.

Eller G, Krüger M, Frenzel P (2005) Comparing field and microcosm experiments: a case study on methano-and methylo-trophic bacteria in paddy soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 51: 279-291.

Emongor V, Nkegbe E, Kealotswe B, Koorapetse I, Sankwasa S, Keikanetswe S (2005) Pollution indicators in Gaborone industrial effluent. Journal of Applied Sciences 5: 147-150.

Goyer C, Dandie CE, Filion M (2012) Quantification of microorganisms targeting conserved genes in complex environmental samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Quantitative Real-Time PCR. Applied Microbiology 87-106.

Han XM, Hu HW, Shi XZ, Wang JT, Han LL, Chen D, He JZ (2016) Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil antibiotic resistome in urban parks of Victoria Australia. Environmental pollution 211: 48-57.

Hendriksen RS, Munk P, Njage P, Van-Bunnik B, McNally L, Lukjancenko O, Kjeldgaard J (2019) Global monitoring of antimicrobial resistance based on metagenomics analyses of urban sewage. Nature Communications 10: 1124.

Karkman A, Pärnänen K, Larsson D-J (2019) Fecal pollution can explain antibiotic resistance gene abundances in anthropogenically impacted environments. Nature Communications 10: 80.

Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M, Sturrock S, Duran C (2012) Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28: 1647-1649.

Kerkeni E, Monastiri K, Seket B, Guediche MN, Cheikh HB (2007) Interplay of socio-economic factors, consanguinity, fertility, and offspring mortality in Monastir, Tunisia. Croatian Medical Journal 48: 701.

Khalid S, Shahid M, Bibi I, Sarwar T, Shah A, Niazi N (2018) A review of environmental contamination and health risk assessment of wastewater use for crop irrigation with a focus on low and high-income countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15: 895.

Lavrni? S, Zapater-Pereyra M, Mancini M-L (2017) Water scarcity and wastewater reuse standards in southern Europe: focus on agriculture. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 228: 251.

Lood R, Ertürk G, Mattiasson B (2017) Revisiting antibiotic resistance spreading in wastewater treatment plants–bacteriophages as a muchneglected potential transmission vehicle. Frontiers in Microbiology 8: 2298.

McArthur AG, Waglechner N, Nizam F, Yan A, Azad MA, Baylay AJ, Ejim L (2013) The comprehensive antibiotic resistance database. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 57: 3348-3357.

Meyer F, Paarmann D, D'Souza M, Olson R, Glass E-M, Kubal M, Wilke A (2008) The metagenomics RAST server–a public resource for the automatic phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenomes. BMC Bioinformatics 9: 386.

Mogomotsi PK, Mogomotsi GE, Hambira WL (2018) Paris agreement on climate change and Botswana’s Vision 2036: an examination of linkages. Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment 16: 59-66.

Munita JM, Arias CA (2016) Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Microbiology Spectrum 4:2.

Mutengu S, Hoko Z, Makoni FS (2007) An assessment of the public health hazard potential of wastewater reuse for crop production: A case of Bulawayo city, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 32: 1195-1203.

Nesme J, Simonet P (2015) The soil resistome: a critical review on antibiotic resistance origins, ecology and dissemination potential in telluric bacteria. Environmental Microbiology17: 913-930.

Ozturk I (2017) The dynamic relationship between agricultural sustainability and food-energy-water poverty in a panel of selected Sub-Saharan African Countries. Energy Policy 107: 289-299.

Pachepsky Y, Shelton D-R, McLain JE, Patel J, Mandrell RE (2011)Irrigation waters as a source of pathogenic microorganisms in produce: a review. Advances in Agronomy 113: 75-141.

Popowska M, Rzeczycka M, Miernik A, Krawczyk-Balska A, Walsh F, Duffy B (2012) Influence of soil use on prevalence of tetracycline, streptomycin, and erythromycin resistance and associated resistance genes. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 56:1434-1443.

Qasim SR (2017) Wastewater treatment plants: planning, design, and operation. Routledge, CRC Press.

Rahube TO, Yost CK (2010) Antibiotic resistance plasmids in wastewater treatment plants and their possible dissemination into the environment. African Journal of Biotechnology 9: 9183-9190.

Sanderson CE, Fox JT, Dougherty ER, Cameron A, Alexander KA (2018) The changing face of water; a dynamic reflection of antibiotic resistance across landscapes. Frontiers in Microbiology 9: 1894.

Schmitt H, Stoob K, Hamscher G, Smit E, Seinen W (2006) Tetracyclines and tetracycline resistance in agricultural soils: microcosm and field studies. Microbial Ecology 51: 267-276.

Shipin OV, Meiring PG, Rose PD (1998) PETRO [R] system: A low-tech approach to the removal of waste-water organic (incorporating effective removal of micro-algne by the trickling filter). Water- SA Pretoria 24: 347-354.

Streit WR, Daniel R (2017) Metagenomics. Springer New York.

Tanentzap AJ, Szkokan-Emilson EJ, Desjardins CM, Orland C, Yakimovich K, Dirszowsky R, Gunn J (2017) Bridging between litterbags and whole-ecosystem experiments: a new approach for studying lake sediments. Journal of limnology 76: 2.

Tapela K,  Rahube TO (2019) Isolation and antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria from influent, effluent and downstream: A study in Botswana. African Journal of Microbiology Research 13: 279-289.

Thanner S, Drissner D, Walsh F (2016) Antimicrobial resistance in agriculture. MBio 7: e02227-02215.

Udikovic-Kolic N, Wichmann F, Broderick NA, Handelsman J (2014) Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 15202-15207.

Uzochukwu B, Onwujekwe O, Mbachu C, Okwuosa C, Etiaba E, Nyström ME, Gilson L (2016) The challenge of bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers: experiences of a Health Policy Research Group in engaging policy makers to support evidence informed policy making in Nigeria. Globalization and Health 12: 67.

Varma JK, Oppong-Otoo J, Ondoa P, Perovic O, Park BJ, Laxminarayan R, Ihekweazu C (2018) Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention's framework for antimicrobial resistance
control in Africa. African Journal of Laboratory Medicine 7: 1-4.

Wafula D, White JR, Canion A, Jagoe C, Pathak A, Chauhan A (2015) Impacts of long-term irrigation of domestic treated wastewater on soil biogeochemistry and bacterial community structure. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 81: 7143-7158.

Zhang XX, Zhang T, Fang HH (2009) Antibiotic resistance genes in water environment. Applied Microbiology& Biotechnology 82: 397-414.

Zhang T, Fang HH (2006) Applications of real-time polymerase chain reaction for quantification of microorganisms in environmental samples. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 70: 281-289.


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