An International Open Access Journal
News Scroll
E-mail Alerts
Subscribe for TOC Alerts
Search Articles
Creative Commons License


Kamradt-Scott A (2012) Changing Perceptions: of Pandemic Influenza and Public Health Responses. American Journal of Public Health 102: 90–98.

Kandeil A, Mostafa A, El-Shesheny R, El-TaweelAN, Gomaa M, Galal H, Kayali, G, Ali MA (2017) Avian influenza H5N1 vaccination efficacy in Egyptian backyard poultry. Vaccine 35: 6195-6201.

Kayali G, Kandeil A, El-Shesheny R, Kayed AS, Maatouq AM, Cai Z, Ali MA (2016) Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases 22: 379–388. DOI:

Khalenkov A, Perk S, Panshin A, Golender N, Webster RG (2009)Modulation of the severity of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza in chickens previously inoculated with Israeli H9N2 influenza viruses. Virology 383: 32-38.

Kim JK, Kayali G, Walker D, Forrest HL, Ellebedy AH, Griffin YS, Aldridge JR (2010) Puzzling inefficiency of H5N1 influenza vaccines in Egyptianpoultry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 11044-11049.

Kumar M, Chu HJ, Rodenberg J, Krauss S, Webster RG (2007) Association of serologic and protective responses of avian influenza vaccines in chickens. Avian disease 51: 481-483.

Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227: 680-685.

Liu W, Li H, Chen YH (2003) N-terminus of M2 protein could induce antibodies with inhibitory activity against influenza virus replication. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 35: 141-146.

Maas R, Tacken M, van Zoelen D, Oei H (2009) Dose response effects of avian influenza (H7N7) vaccination of chickens: serology, clinical protection and reduction of virus excretion. Vaccine 27: 3592-3597.

Park KS, Lee J, Ahn SS, Byun YH, Seong BL, Baek YH, Song MS, Choi YK, Na YJ, Hwang I, Sung YC, Lee CG (2009) Mucosal immunity induced by adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine confers protection against a lethalH5N2 avian influenza virus challenge. Virology 395: 182-189.

Reed LJ, Muench H (1938) A simple method of estimating fifty per cent end points. American Journal of Epidemiology 27: 493–497

Rott R (1992) The pathogenic determinant of influenza virus. Veterinary Microbiology 33: 303-310.

Spackman E, Senne DA, Davison S, Suarez DL (2003) Sequence analysis of recent H7 avian influenza viruses associated with three different outbreaks in commercial poultry in the United States. Journal of virology 77: 13399-13402.

Swayne DE, Beck JR, Garcia M, Stone HD (1999) Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines. Avian Pathology 28: 245-255.

Swayne DE, Beck JR, Perdue ML, Beard CW (2001) Efficacy of vaccines in chickens against highly pathogenic Hong Kong H5N1 avian influenza. Avian Disease 45: 355-365.

Swayne DE, Garcia M, Beck JR, Kinney N, Suarez DL (2000a) Protection against diverse highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine containing an H5 avian influenza hemagglutinin gene insert. Vaccine 18: 1088-1095.

Swayne DE, Lee CW, Spackman E (2006) Inactivated North American and European H5N2 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens from Asian H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Avian Pathology 35: 141-146.

Swayne DE, Perdue ML, Beck JR, Garcia M, Suarez DL (2000b) Vaccines protect chickens against H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza in the face of genetic changes in field viruses over multiple years. Veterinary microbiology 74: 165-172.

Swayne DE, Suarez DL, Spackman E, Jadhao S, Dauphin G, Kim-Torchetti M, McGrane J, Weaver J, Daniels P, Wong F, Selleck P, Wiyono A, Indriani R, Yupiana Y, Sawitri Siregar E, Prajitno T, Smith D, Fouchier R (2015) Antibody Titer Has Positive Predictive Value for Vaccine Protection against Challenge with Natural Antigenic-Drift Variants of H5N1 High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses from Indonesia. Journal of Virology 89: 3746–3762.

Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J (1979) Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 76: 4350-4354.

Van der Goot JA, Koch G, de Jong MC, vanBoven M (2005) Quantification of the effect of vaccination on transmission of avian influenza (H7N7) in chickens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102: 18141-18146.

Van der Goot JA, Van Boven M, Stegeman A, van de Water SG, de Jong MC, Koch G (2008) Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virusin Pekin ducks is significantly reduced by a genetically distant H5N2 vaccine. Virology 382: 91-97.

Webby RJ, Perez DR, Coleman JS, Guan Y, Knight JH, Govorkova EA, McClain-Moss LR, Peiris JS, Rehg JE, Tuomanen EI, Webster RG (2004) Responsiveness to a pandemic alert: use of reverse genetics for rapid development of influenza vaccines. The Lancet 363: 1099-1103.

WHO (2002) WHO Manual on Animal Influenza Diagnosis and Surveillance 2nd 422 Edition. [Online.]

Wood JM, Kawaoka Y, Newberry LA, Bordwell E, Webster RG (1985) Standardization of inactivated H5N2 influenza vaccine and efficacy against lethalA/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 infection. Avian Disease 29: 867-872.

Users Online: 155
Editorial Board
Indexed & Listed In
Track manuscript
Manuscript Statistics
Articles Statistics
Publication Statistics