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Anonymous (1995a) Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) by colony-count technique at 35°C/37°C. Part 1. Technique with confirmation of colonies. International Standardization Organization document 6888–1. International Standardization Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Anonymous (1995b) Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs—horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) by colony-count technique at 35°C/37°C. Part 2. Technique without confirmation of colonies. International Standardization Organization document 6888–2. International Standardization Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Anonymous (1997) Milk and milk-based products: enumeration of coagulase positive staphylococci: colony count technique. International Dairy Federation standard 154A:1997. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium.

Ceron-Munoz M, Tonhati H, Duarte J, Oliveira J, Munoz-Berrocal M, Jurado-Gamez H (2002) Factors affecting somatic cell counts and their relations with milk and milk constituent yield in buffaloes. Journal of Dairy Science 85: 2885–2889.

Chandrashekar KM, Isloor S, Veeresh BH, Hegde R, Rathnamma D, Murag S, Veeregowda BM, Upendra HA, Hegde NR (2015) Limit of detection of genomic DNA by conventional PCR for estimating the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli associated with bovine mastitis. Folia Microbiologica 60: 465-72.                                                                                  

Chern EC, Siefring S, Paar J, Doolittle M, Haugland RA (2011) Comparison of quantitative PCR assays for Escherichia coli targeting ribosomal RNA and single copy genes. Journal of Applied Microbiology 52: 298306.

Cremonesi P, Castiglioni B, Malferrari G, Biunno I, Vimercati C, Moroni P, Morondi S, Luzzana M (2006) Technical note: improved method for rapid DNA extraction of mastitis pathogens directly from milk. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 163-169. 

Daly P, Collier T, Doyle S (2002) PCR-ELISA detection of Escherichia coli in milk. Journal of Applied Microbiology 34: 222226.

Fang W (1996) Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the liquid medium by fluorimetry and its use in phagocytosis assay. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 80: 577–582.

Forsman A, Tilsal-Timisjarvi PA, Alatossava T (1997) Identification of Staphylococcal and Streptococcal causes of bovine mastitis using 16S23S rRNA spacer regions. Journal of Microbiology 143: 34913500.

Gaibani P, Mariconti M, Bua G, Bonora S, Sassera D, Landini MP, Mulatto P, Novati S, Bandi C, Sambri V (2013) Development of a broad-range 23S rDNA real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of pathogenic bacteria in human whole blood and plasma specimens. International Journal of Biological Medical Research 2013: 264651.

Hein I, Lehner A, Rieck P, Klein K, Brandl E, Wagner M (2001) Comparison of different approaches to quantify Staphylococcus aureus cells by real-time quantitative PCR and application of this technique for examination of cheese. Applied Environmental Microbiology 67: 31223126

Hegde R, Isloor S, Nithin Prabhu K, Shome BR, Rathnamma D, Suryanarayana VVS, Yatiraj S, Renuka Prasad C, Krishnaveni N, Sundareshan S, Akhila DS, Gomes AR, Hegde NR (2013) Incidence of subclinical mastitis and prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in organized farms and unorganized sectors. Indian Journal of Microbiology 53: 315–320.

Hogan JS, Gonzalez RN, Harmon RJ, Nickerson SC, Oliver SP, Pankey JW, Smith KL (1999) Laboratory handbook on bovine mastitis. National Mastitis Council, Madison, Pp.222.

Huggett J, Laver T, Tamisak S, Nixon G, O’sullivan D, Elaswarapu R (2013) Considerations for the development and application of control materials to improve metagenomic microbial community profiling. Accreditation and Quality Assurance 18: 77–83.

Jayarao BM, Gillespie BE, Oliver SP (1996) Application of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA finger printing for species identification of bacteria isolated from bovine milk. Journal of Food Protection 59: 615620.

Karpowicz E, Novinscak A, Ba¨Rlocher F, Filion M (2010) qPCR quantification and genetic characterization of Clostridium perfringens populations in biosolids composted for 2 years. Journal of Applied Microbiology 108: 571– 581.

Kim CH, Khan M, Morin DE, Hurley WL, Tripathy DN, Kehrli M, Oluoch AO, Kakoma I (2001) Optimization of the PCR for detection of Staphylococcus aureus nuc gene in bovine milk. Journal of Dairy Science 84: 74-83.

Koskinen MT, Wellenberg GJ, Sampimon OC, Holopainen J, Rothkamp A, Salmikivi L, Van Haeringen WA, Lam TJGM, Pyorala S (2010) Field comparison of real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction and bacterial culture for identification of bovine mastitis bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science 93: 5707–5715.

Meiri-Bendek, Lipkin E, Friedman A, Leitner G, Saran A, Friedman S, Kashi Y (2002) A PCR based method for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in milk. Journal of Dairy Science 85: 1717-172.

Birhanu M, Leta S, Mamo G, Tesfaye S (2017) Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis and isolation of its major causes in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes10:767. doi: 10.1186/s13104-017-3100-0.

Nithinprabhu K, Isloor S, Hegde R, Rathnamma D, Veeregowda BM, Murthy HNN, Shome R, Suryanarayana VVS (2013) Development of polymerase chain reaction for detection of predominant streptococcal isolates causing subclinical mastitis. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 12: 208 – 212.

Pascual MR, Calderon V (2000) Investigation y recuento de Staphylococcus aureus. In: Microbiologia Alimentaria (2nd Edn) ed. D?az de Santos, Madrid, Spain, Pp. 77–87. 

Pheuktes P, Mansell PD, Browning GF (2001) Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction assay for simultaneous detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcal causes of bovine mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 84: 1140 – 1148.

Phuektes P, Browning GF, Anderson G, Mansell PD (2003) Multiplex polymerase chain reaction as a mastitis screening test for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis in bulk milk samples. Journal of Dairy Research 70: 149155.

Pitkala A, Haveri M, Pyorola S, Myllys V, Buzalski HT (2004) Bovine mastitis in Finland 2001-Prevalence, distribution of bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance. Journal of Dairy Science 87: 2433 – 2441.

Preethirani PL, Isloor S, Sundareshan S, Nuthanalakshmi V, Deepthikiran K, Sinha AY, Rathnamm D, Nithinpradhu K, Sharada R, Mukkur TK, Hegde NR (2015) Isolation, biochemical and molecular identification and in-vitro antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from Bubaline subclinical mastitis in South India. PLoS One 10: 142717.

Riffon R, Sayasith H, Khalil H, Dubreuil P, Drolet M, Legace J (2001) Development of a rapid and sensitive test for identification of major pathogens in bovine mastitis by PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39: 2584-2589.

Schukken YH, Wilson DJ, Welcome F, Garrison-Tikofsky L, Gonzalez RN (2003). Monitoring udder health and milk quality using somatic cell counts. Veterinary Research 34: 579–596.

Shome BR, Das Mitra S, Bhuvana M, Krithiga N, Velu D, Shome R, Isloor S, Barbuddhe SB, Rahman H (2011) Multiplex PCR assay for species identification of bovine mastitis pathogens. Journal of Applied Microbiology 111: 13491356.

Sundareshan S, Hari Babu Y, Isloor S, Awati B, Hegde NR (2012) Isolation and phenotype-based speciation of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from bovine milk samples. Frontier Journal of Animal Science 1: 3439.

Taponen S, Salmikivi L, Simojoki L, Simojoki H, KoskinenMT, Pyorala S (2009) Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based identification of bacteria in milk samples from bovine clinical mastitis with no growth in conventional culturing. Journal of Dairy Science 92: 26102617

Vondrakova L, Pazlarova J, Demnerova K (2014) Detection, identification and quantification of Campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari in food matrices all at once using multiplex qPCR. Gut Pathogen 6: 12.

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