An International Open Access Journal
News Scroll
E-mail Alerts
Subscribe for TOC Alerts
Search Articles
Creative Commons License


Abdel Motaal A, El-Askary H, Crockett S, Kunert O, Sakr B, Shaker S, Bauer R (2015) Aldose reductase inhibition of a saponin-rich fraction and new furostanol saponin derivatives from Balanites aegyptiaca. International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology 22: 829-836.

Abdel-Kader MS, Alqasoumi SI (2008) Evaluation of the hepatoprotective effect of the ethanol extracts of Solanum nigrum, Cassia fistula, Balanites aegyptiaca and Carthamus tinctorius against experimentally induced liver injury in rats. Alexandria Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 22:47–50.

Abdelkarim G,  Benaicha N, Elmajdoub M,  Hamal A (2014) What is a bioactive compound? A combined definition for a preliminary consensus.  International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 3: 174-179.

Abdulmalik YJ, Yaro UN, Chindo AH, Anuka JA, Hussaini IM (2011) Behavioral Properties of Balanites aegyptiaca in Rodents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 135: 725-729.

Abou Khalil NS, Abou-Elhamd AS, Wasfy SI, El Mileegy IM, Hamed MY, Ageely HM (2016) Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum) Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats. Journal of Diabetes Research 2016:8408326. doi: 10.1155/2016/8408326.

Absalom KV, Nwadiro PO,  Wophill N (2013) Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca Linnaeus) On the Juveniles of Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Teugels, 1986). IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 3: 13-18.

Abu-Al-Futuh IM (1983) Balanites aegyptiaca: An Unutilized raw material potential ready for agroindustrial exploitation. UNIDO Document no. 12419 project TF/INT/77/021. UNIDO of the United Nations.

Ahmed Hassan LE, Dahham SS, Mohammed Saghir SA, Mohammed AMA, Eltayeb NM, Abdul Majid AMS, Abdul Majid AS (2016) Chemotherapeutic potentials of the stem bark of Balanite aegyptiaca (L.) Delile: an antiangiogenic, antitumor and antioxidant agent. BMC Complementry & Alternative Medicine 16: 396.

Al Ashaal H, Farghaly A, Abd El Aziz M, Ali M (2010) Phytochemical investigation and medicinal evaluation of fixed oil of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits (Balantiaceae).
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127: 495-501.

Al-Ghannam SM, Ahmed HH, Zein N, Zahran F (2013) Antitumor Activity of Balanitoside Extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca Fruit. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 3 : 179-191.

Ali R, Mirza Z, ASHRAF GM, Kamal MA, Ansari SA, Damanhouri GA, Abuzenadah AM, Chaudhary AG, Sheikh IA (2012) New anticancer agents: recent developments in tumor therapy. Anticancer Research 32 :2999–3005.

Al-Thobaiti S, Abu Zeid I (2018) Medicinal properties of desert date plants (Balanites aegyptiaca)  an overview. Global Journal of Pharmacology 12: 1-12.

Amalraj VA, Shankanarayan KA (1998) Ecological distribution of Balanites roxburghii pl in arid Rajasthan. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2: 183-187.

Amaro C, González-Cortazar M, Herrera-Ruiz M, Román-Ramos R, Aguilar-Santamaría L, Tortoriello J, Jiménez-Ferrer E (2014) Hypoglycemic and hypotensive activity of a root extract of Smilax aristolochiifolia, standardized on N-trans-feruloyl-tyramine. Molecules 19: 11366-11384.

Ansari MM, Ahmad J, Ali M, Ansari SH (2006) 10-Methyl-n-heptacosane and diglucosyldirhamnoside from the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Delile. Indian Journal of Chemistry 45:2154-2156.

Arbonnier M (2004) Trees, Shrubs and Lianas of West African Dry Zones. CIRAD, MARGRAF Publishers GMBH.

Aregay N , Hruy G , Semere T (2017) Potentials and Constraints of Under-Utilized Tree Fruits and Vegetables in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia - Journal of the Drylands 7: 664-674.

Augustus ND, Maalekuu BK,  Akurugu GK (2014) Postharvest handling of the Edible Parts (Leaves and Fruits) of the Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) A Case Study in the Jirapa and Nadowli Districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana.  International journal of plant, animal and Environmental Sciences: 4: 573-583.

Barley S (1962) Zygophyllaceae. In: Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (Eds.) The Medicinal and poisonous plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. London: Livingstone Ltd; 1962. Pp. 1064.

Beneytout JL, Nappez C, Leboutet MJ, Malivvand G (1995) A plant steroid, diosgenin a new megakaryocytic differentiation induce of HEL cell. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 207:398–404.

Billore SKV (1988) Balanites aegyptiaca: A Browse Plant of High Protein Value in Degraded Lands. In: Singh P, Pathak PS (Eds.), Rangelands Resources and Management, Pp: 350-355.

Bobbo AA, Pukuma MS, Qadeer MA (2016) Assessment of Larvicidal Activity of Hyptis suaveolens and Balanites aegyptiaca Leaves and Root Extracts against Mosquito Species. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 6:10-14

Breimer L, ElSheikh SH, Furu P (2007) Preliminary investigation of the disposition of the molluscicidal saponin deltonin from Balanites aegyptiaca in a snail species (Biomphalaria glabrata) and in mice. Journal of Pesticide Science 32:213–221.

Bukar A, Danfillo I, Adeleke O, Ogunbodede E, (2004) Traditional oral health practices among Kanuri women of Borno state Nigeria. Odontostomatol Tropicale 27:25-31.

Campbell L, White J, Campbell R (1996) Acarbose: its role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus Annals of Pharmacotherapy 30: 1255-1262.

Chapagain BP, Hariv Y, Zeev W (2009) Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for biodiesel. Bioresource Technology 100: 1221-1226.

Chaudhry T, Khoo C (2004) Balanites herbs potential remedy for HIV/AIDS and other ailments, vol. 47. Hamdard Medicus, Bait al-Hikmah, Karachi, Pakistan Pp. 42-44.

Chevallier MH, Bensaid S, Diallo OB, Sahki R, Ganaba S, Sanou J, Bouguedoura N, Vaillant A, Babin D (2003) Biodiversité et multidisciplinarité : méthodologie pour les zones arides. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 276 :33-41.

Chothani DL, Vaghasiya HU (2011) A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy Reviews 5 : 55-62.

Cook JA, Vanderjagt DJ, Pastuszyn A, Mounkaïla G, Glew RS, Glew RH 1998 Nutrient content of two indigenous Plant foods of the werstern Sahel : Balanites aegyptiaca and Maerua crassifolia. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 11: 221-230.

Cordano G, Terrien M, Plonsky J, Rabanal R, Varenne P (1978) Balanitol, a new sesquiterpene from B. roxburghii, carbon-13 NMR analysis of eudesonancesesquiterpenoids. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society 55:1148-51.

Dawidar AAM, Fayez BE (1969) Steroid Sapogenins. XIII. The constituents of Balanites aegyptiaca. Phytochemistry 8:261–265.

Elfeel AA, Warrag EI (2011) Uses and conservation status of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.)Del. (Hegleig Tree) in Sudan: Local people perspective. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3 : 386 – 390.

Elhardallou SB, Elawad AM, Khairi NA, Gobouri AA, Dhahawi HO (2014) A Review on Omega-3 and Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Uses, Benefits and their Availability in Pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima) Seed and Desert Dates (Balanites aegyptiaca) Seed Kernel Oils. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 17: 1195-1208.

Elseed AMAF, Amin AE, Khadiga, Ali AA, Sekene J, Hishinum M, Hamana K (2002) Nutritive evaluation of some fodder tree species during the dry season in Central Sudan. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 15: 844-850.

FAO (1985) An all purpose tree for Africa offers food and income. Ceres 18: 6-7.

Farag M, Porzel A, Wessjohann L (2015) Unraveling the active hypoglycemic agent trigonelline in Balanites aegyptiaca date fruit using metabolite fingerprinting by NMR.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 115: 383-387.

Farid H, Haslinger E, Kunert O, Wegner C, Hamburger M (2002) New steroidal glycosides from Balanites aegyptiaca. Helvetica Chimica Acta 85:1019–1026.

Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar H, Becker K (2007) The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. British Journal of Nutrition 88: 587-605.

Gad MZ, El-Sawalhi MM, Ismail MF, ElTanbouly ND (2006) Biochemical study of the anti-diabetic action of the Egyptian plants Fenugreek and Balanites. Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry 281: 173–183.

Gnoula C, Mégalizzi V, De Nève N, Sauvage S, Ribaucour F, Guissou P, Duez P, Dubois J, Ingrassia L, Lefranc F, Kiss R, Mijatovic T (2008). Balanitin-6 and -7: diosgenyl saponins isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca Del. display significant anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. International Journal of Oncology 32:5-15

Grosskinsky B, Gullick C (2001) Potential of indigenous food plants to support and strengthen livelioohs in Southern Sudan. In: Kenyatta C, Henderson A (Eds.), the potential of indigenous wild foods. Workshop proceedings, USAID/OFDA, Mombassa, Kenya.

Guinand Y, Lemessa D (2001) Wild food plants in Ethiopia: Reflections on the role of wild foods and famine foods at a time of drought. In: Kenyatta C, Henderson A (Eds), the potential of indigenous wild foods. Workshop proceedings, USAID/OFDA, Mombassa, Kenya.

Gupta SC, Shenoy S, Kotecha M (2012) Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical evaluation of Balanites aegyptica Del. Stem Bark. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 3: 169 -173.

Gutti B, Bamidele SS, Bagaje IM (2012) Characterization and composition of Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil and its potential as biodiesel feedstock in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Phytotechnology in Environmental Sanitation 1: 29-35.

Hall JB, Waljer DH (1991) School of Agricultural and Forest Science.Banger: University of Wales; 1991. Balanites aegyptiaca Del. A monograph; Pp. 1–12.

Hamid O, Wahab M, Hassan E (2001) Balanites aegyptiaca extract for treatment of HIV/ AIDS and leukemia. International Publication Number WO 2001/49306 A1.

Hammouda F, Ismail S, Abdel-Azim N, Shams K, Batanouny K (2005) A guide to medicinal plants in North Africa. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Malaga, Spain, Pp. 77-78.

Hanan A, Al-Ashaal AF, Ayman MM, Abd El-Aziz, Ali MA (2009) Phytochemical investigation and medicinal evaluation of fixed oil of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits (Balantiaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2: 495-501.

Hardman R, Sofowora EA (1970) Isolation and characterization of yamogenin from Balanites aegyptiaca. Phytochemistry 9:  645-649.

Hardman R, Sofowora EA (1972) A reinvestigation of Balanites aegyptiaca as a source of steroidal sapogenins. Economic Botany 26:169–173.

Hassan LE, Dahham SS, Saghir SA, Mohammed AM, Eltayeb NM, Majid AM, Majid AS (2016) Chemotherapeutic potentials of the stem bark of Balanite aegyptiaca (L.) Delile: an antiangiogenic, antitumor and antioxidant agent. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 16:396.

Helal EGE, AbdEl-Wahab SM, El Refaey H,  Mohammad AA (2013) Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Balanites aegyptiaca Seeds (Aqueous Extract) on Diabetic Rats. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine 52: 725–739.

Hosny M, Khalifa T, Calis I, Wright AD, Sticher O (1992) Balanitoside: A furostanol glycoside, and 6-methyldiosgenin from Balanites aegyptiaca. Phytochemistry. 31:3565–3569.

Hostettmann K, Marston A (1995) Saponins: chemistry and pharmacology of natural’s products. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Hung W, Suh J, Wang Y (2016) Chemistry and health effects of furanocoumarins in grapefruit. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 25: 71-83.

Kamel MS (1998): A Furostanol saponin from fruits of Balanites aegyptica. Phytochemistry 48 : 755-57

Kamel MS, Koskinen A (1995) Pregnane glycosides from fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca. Phytochemistry 40:1773–1775.

Kapseu C, Mbofung CMF, Kayem GJ (1997) Fatty acids and triglycerides of fruit oils from Cyperus esculentus and Balanites aegyptiaca. Sciences des Aliments 17:531–537.

Katewa SS, Chaudhary BL, Jain A (2004) Folk herbal medicines from tribal area of Rajasthan, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92: 41–46.

Khare CP (2007) Indian Medicinal Plants-An Illustrated Dictionary. 1st Indian Reprint Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 2007;28.

Koch A, Tamez P, Pezzuto J, Soejarto D (2005) Evaluation of plants used for anti malarial treatment by the Maasai of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 101: 95–99.

Koko WS, Abdalla HS, Galal M, Khalid HS (2005) Evaluation of oral therapy on mansomal schistosomiasis using single dose of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and praziquantel. Fitoterapia 76:30–4.

Koko WS, Galal M, Khalid HS (2000) Fasciolicidal efficacy of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca compared with albendazole. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 71:247-52.

Kommu S, Gowrishankar NL, Kamala D, Saritha B, Srinivasulu V, Naresh B, Sandeep K, Nagesp P  (2013) Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Methanolic Extract of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Leaves. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5: 52-53.

Kumawat BK, Gupta M, Chand T, Singh Y (2012) Prelimenary phytochemical investigation on leaves of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.).Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 3 :0975-8585.

Kusch P, Deininger S, Specht S, Maniako R, Haubrich S, Pommerening T, Lin PKT, Hoerauf A, Kaiser A (2011) In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase. Journal of Parasitology Research, Article ID 368692, 9 pages, 2011.

Locket CT, Calvert CC, Grivetti LE (2000) Energy and micronutrients composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought Study of rural Fulani, North easthern Nigeria. International Journal of Food Sciences 51: 195-208.

Maksoud S, El Hadidi M (1988) The flavonoids of Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) from Egypt. Plant Systematics and Evolution 160: 153-158.

Mariam S, Onyenibe NS,  Oyelola OB (2013) Aqueous Extract of Balanites aegyptiaca Del Fruit Mesocarp Protects against CCl4 – Induced Liver Damage in Rats. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 3: 917-928.

McNeely W, Goa K (1998) 5-Methoxypsoralen. A review of its effects in psoriasis and vitiligo. Drugs 56: 667-690.

Mohamed AH, Eltahir KEH, Ali MB, Galal M, Ayeed IA, Adam SI, Hamid OA (1999) Some pharmacological and toxicological studies on Balanites aegyptiaca bark. Phytotherapy Research 13: 439 – 441.

Molla E, Giday M, Erko B (2013) Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of Balanites aegyptiaca. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 3 : 657-662.

Montasser AOS, Saleh H, Ahmed-Farid OA, Saad A, Marie MS (2017) Protective effects of Balanites aegyptiaca extract, Melatonin and Ursodeoxycholic acid against hepatotoxicity induced by Methotrexate in male rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 10: 557-565

Morsy AMA (2008) Environmental and biochemical assessment of some wild plants growing south of the eastern desert. Ph.D thesis submitted to the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Ain Shams University, Pp. 1–161.

Mostafa FAA, Ali AO, Elreffaei1 WHM, Shalaby RA,  Mehanni AE  (2016)  Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Balanites aegyptiaca Kernel and Its Effects on Ccl4 Treated Rats. Mansoura Journal of Food and Dairy Sciences 7: 407 – 414.

Nappez C, Liagre B, Beneytout JL (1995) Changes in lipoxygenase activities in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells during diosgenin induced differentiation. Cancer Letter 96:133-140.

Natinal Research Council (2008) Lost Crops of Africa: Volume III, Fruits, Development, Security and Cooperation. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

Ndoye M, Diallo I, Gassama YK (2004) Reproductive biology in Balanites aegyptiaca(L.) Del., a semi-arid forest tree. African Journal of Biotechnology 3:40–46.

Neuwinger HD (1996) African Ethnobotony poisons and drugs, Champan and Hal, Londan, United Kingdom Pp. 941.

Obidah W, Nadro MS, Tiyafo GO, Wurochekke AU (2009) Toxicity of Crude Balanites aegyptiaca Seed Oil in Rats. The Journal of American Science 5:13-16.

Ojo O, Nadro M, Tella I (2006) Protection of rats by extracts of some common Nigerian trees against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. African Journal of Biotechnology 5:755-760.

Okia CA, Agea JG, Kimondo JM, Abohassan RAA, Okiror P, Obua J, Teklehaimanot Z (2011) Use and Management of Balanites aegyptiaca in Drylands of Uganda. Research Journal of Biological Sciences 6: 15-24.

Pandey CN (2005) Gujarat, India: Gujarat Ecological Education and Research Foundation, Medicinal plants of Gujarat; Pp. 387.

Patil SV, Salunke BK, Patil CD, Salunkhe RB, Gavit P, Maheshwari VL (2010) Potential of extracts of the tropical plant Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del.(2010): (Balanitaceae) to control the mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Crop Protection 29: 1293 – 1296.

Pettit GR, Doubek DL, Herald DL, Numata A, Takahasi C, Fujiki R, Miyamoto T (1991) Isolation and structure of cytostatic steroidal saponins from the African medicinal plant Balanites aegyptiaca. Journal of Natural Product 54:1491–502.

Rao MV, Shah KD, Rajani M (1997) Contraceptive efficacy of Balanites roxburghii pericarpium extract in male mice (Mus musculus). Phytotherapy Research 11:469 – 471.

Rathore M, Arya R, Meena RK, Kumar H (2005) Shuahk kshetro mei paye jane wale tailiya beejo ke vrikshon ki sambhavit upigoyita. AFRI Darpan (Hindi) 2:12-13.

Rice-Evans C, Miller N, Paganga G, (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 20:  933-956.

Rohini K, Srikumar PS (2014) Therapeutic Role of Coumarins and Coumarin-Related Compounds. Journal of Thermodynamics & Catalysis 5: 130. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7544.1000130.

Saeed A, Ibrahim N, Bashandy S, El-Gengaihi S (1995) Saponin of Balanites aegyptiaca Del fruits and biological evaluation. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University 33:105–9.

Saharan V, Yadav R, Wiesman Z (2008) Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile: A potential source of saponin. Current Biotica 2: 110-113.

Salwa A, Maksoud, Hadidi MNE (1988) The flavonoids of Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) from Egypt. Plant Systematics and Evolution 3-4: 153-158.

Samuelsson G, Farah MH, Claeson P (1991) Inventory of plants used in traditional medicine of somania, plant of the families Acanthaceae- Chenopodiaceae. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 35:25–30.

Sarker S, Bartholomew B, Nash R (2000) Alkaloids from Balanites aegyptiaca. Fitoterapia 71 :328–30. doi: 10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00149-5.

Seida AA, Kinghorn AD, Cordell GA, Farnsworth NR (1981) Isolation of bergapten and marmesin from Balanites aegyptiaca. Planta medica 43: 92-93.

Shalaby H, El Namaky A, Khalil F, Kandil O (2012) Efficacy of methanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits on Toxocaravitulorum. Veterinary Parasitology 183: 386-392.

Sheded MG, Pulford ID, Hamed AI (2006) Presence of major and trace elements in seven medicinal plants growing in the South-Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Arid Environment 66: 210-217.

Sibhat GG, Hiben MG (2016) Consequence of concurrent use of chloroquine and hydroalcoholic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca and leaf leatx of Aloe camperi. The Journal of Phytopharmacology 5: 35-37.

Sourabie TS, Kinda D, Yaro B, Nikiema JB (2013)  Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used By the Traditional Medical Healers in the Villages of Bérégadougou and Fabédougou  (Cascades Region, Burkina Faso) - Balanites aegyptiaca Balanitaceae Tree Fruit . IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 3: 38-45.

Spencer J (2008) Flavonoids: modulators of brain function?
British Journal of Nutrition 99: ES60-ES77.

Speroni E, Cervellati R, Innocenti G, Costa S, Guerra M, Dall S (2005) Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 98:117-25.

Stadlmayr B, Charrondière U,  Eisenwagen S, Jamnadass R, Kehlenbeck K (2013) Nutrient composition of selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93: 2627-2636.

Staerk D, Chapagain BP, Lindin T, Wiesman Z, Jaroszewski JW (2006) Structural analysis of complex saponins of Balanites aegyptiaca by 800 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry 44: 923-928.

Suky TMG, Parthipan B, Kingston C, Mohan VR (2011) Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aerial part of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del against Carrageenan induced Paw Oedema. International Journal of PharmTech Research 3: 639-643.


Users Online: 91
Editorial Board
Indexed & Listed In
Track manuscript
Manuscript Statistics
Articles Statistics
Publication Statistics