Volume 5 Issue 3 Article 13

Seroscreening of lactating cattle for coxiellosis by TRANS-PCR and commercial ELISA in Kerala, India


Pankaj Dhaka1, Satyaveer Singh Malik1*, Jay Prakash Yadav1, Manesh Kumar1, Jess Vergis1, Radhakrishna Sahu1, Lijo John2, Sukhadeo Baliram Barbuddhe3, Deepak B. Rawool1


1Division of Veterinary Public Health, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India, Pin- 243122.
2Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode, Lakkidi P.O., Wayanad, Kerala, India, Pin- 673576.
3National Research Centre on Meat, Chengicherla, Boduppal Post, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, Pin- 500092.


Keywords: [Cattle, Coxiella burnetii, ELISA, Q fever, trans-PCR, Zoonoses]

Page No: 377-383


Received - May 27, 2017; Revision - June 27, 2017; Accepted - June 29, 2017
Available Online - June 30, 2017




The sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in domestic ruminants, which are considered as prime reservoirs, remains largely neglected and underreported in various states of India. The present study was aimed to assess coxiellosisamong lactating cattle (n=134) based on their seroscreening at household level in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. On testing the cattle sera by trans-PCR targeting IS1111 gene of C. burnetii for the pathogen detection as well as by a commercial ELISA kit for the detection of antibodies against C. burnetii, the acute infection was noticed in 01 out of 134 animals (0.75%) that tested positive in trans-PCR assay while 06/134 (4.5%) animals indicated a persistent focalised infection based on their positivity in ELISA. Therefore, we conclude and recommend that the use of trans-PCR along with a serological assay like ELISA on serum samples is indispensable for early diagnosis of acute cases of coxiellosis in animals as well as to get a realistic assessment of the disease burden based on seroprevalence. This study seems to be the first epidemiological survey to highlight the hidden threat of coxiellosis among cattle population in Kerala, a southern state of India. However, other domestic and wild animals including cattle as well as their human contacts at high-risk need to be investigated through a large scale and multi-centric epidemiological study for making a realistic assessment of the associated risk factors and to unmask the zoonotic potential of C. burnetii infection in the country.

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